QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.1 : As an approximation, let v = Zc / 137 where v is the radial velocity for 1 s electron of an element, c is the speed of light, Z is the atomic number. For gold with Z = 79, find the radial velocity of its 1 s electron, in term of c and percentage of the speed of light. (b) As an approximation, let A x A = 1 - Z x Z / 18769 where A is the ratio of the relativistic and non-relativistic Bohr radius. Find the value of A.
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - ANSWER 31.1 : (a) Approximately v = Zc / 137 = (79 / 137) c = 0.5766 c or 57.66 % of the speed of light. (b) Approximately A x A = 1 - Z x Z / 18769 = 1 - 79 x 79 / 18769 = 0.667 then A = 0.817. The answer is given by Kang Chuen Tat; PO Box 6263, Dandenong, Victoria VIC 3175, Australia; SMS +61405421706; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://kangchuentat.wordpress.com.
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FOOD ENGINEERING - QUESTION 23.3 : (a) In the measurement of the browning (optical density) of fruit juice at 10 day interval, the following pairs of data are obtained with time t in days and browning or optical density (OD) : t = 0, OD = 0.05; t = 10, OD = 0.071; t = 20, OD = 0.089; t = 30, OD = 0.11; t = 40, OD = 0.128; t = 50, OD = 0.149; t = 60, OD = 0.17. (i) By using Excel or other programs, determine if such browning reaction can be characterised by pseudo zero order kinetics, with strong correlations between the data pairs of t and OD. (ii) When OD = 0.24, the shelf life T of such juice is expired. Calculate the value of T. (b) Let food cost percentage = ( food cost / food sales ) x 100. If total food cost of bread and butter are $25, food cost percentage of bread is 50 % and for butter is 50 %, find the total food sales of bread and butter.
ENGINEERING PHYSICS - EXAMPLE 30.2 : The Planck-Einstein relation connects the particulate photon energy E with its associated wave frequency f to produce E = hf. Let h to be the Planck constant. The frequency f, wavelength L and speed of light c are related by E = hc / L. With p denoting the linear momentum of a particle, the de Broglie wavelength L of the particle is given by L = h / p. (a) Find the equation of E as a function of p and c. (b) If E has a unit of electron-volt and f has a unit of 1 / second, then what is the unit of h?
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Question 67 – In order to predict the wastewater production, the population number has to be understood. The population data is : 72000 (for year 1961 or P-1961), 85000 (for year 1971 or P-1971), 110500 (for year 1981 or P-1981). (a) Find the average population increase, or [ (P-1981 - P-1971) + (P-1971 - P-1961) ] / 2. (b) Find the average percentage population increase, or [ (P-1981 - P-1971) / P-1971 + (P-1971 - P-1961) / P-1961 ] / (2) X 100. (c) Find the incremental increase or P-1981 - 2 (P-1971) + P-1961. (d) Let Po = P-1981. After 2 decades or n = 2, the population is P-2001. By using arithmetical increase method, find P-2001 = Po + n (Answer for a). (e) By using incremental increase method, find P-2001 = (Answer of d) + n (n + 1) (Answer of c) / 2. (f) By using geometrical increase method, find P-2001 = Po [ 1 + (Answer of b) / 100 ] ^ n where ^ is power sign, or 1 ^ 2 = 1 x 1 = 1. (g) If the actual P-2001 = 184000, which method of estimation is more accurate, based on your answer in (d), (e) and (f)?
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING - QUESTION 25.3 : Liquid octane has a density of 703 kilograms per cubic metre and molar mass of 114.23 grams per mole. Its specific heat capacity is 255.68 J / (mol K). (a) Find the energy in J needed to increase the temperature of 1 cubic metre of octane for 1 Kelvin. (b) At 20 degree Celsius, the solubility of liquid octane in water is 0.007 mg / L as stated in a handbook. For a mixture of 1 L of liquid octane and 1 L of water, prove by calculations that liquid octane is almost insoluble in water.
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CHEMICAL FLUID MECHANIC - EXAMPLE 3.2 : The terminal velocity of a falling object, v is given by v = sqrt [ 4g (R - r) D / (3Cr) ] where sqrt is the square root of, g = 9.81, D = 0.000208, R = 1800, r = 994.6, m = 0.000893. The Reynold number, L is given by L = rD (v) / m. The C for various conditions are : C = 24 / L for L < 0.1; C = 24 (1 + 0.14 L^0.7) / L for 0.1 <= L <= 1000; C = 0.44 for 1000 < L <= 350000; C = 0.19 - 80000 / L for 350000 < L. Find the value of v for the situation above by trial and error, ^ is power, <= is less than or equal to.
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