QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 31.1 : As an approximation, let v = Zc / 137 where v is the radial velocity for 1 s electron of an element, c is the speed of light, Z is the atomic number. For gold with Z = 79, find the radial velocity of its 1 s electron, in term of c and percentage of the speed of light. (b) As an approximation, let A x A = 1 - Z x Z / 18769 where A is the ratio of the relativistic and non-relativistic Bohr radius. Find the value of A.
QUANTUM CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - ANSWER 31.1 : (a) Approximately v = Zc / 137 = (79 / 137) c = 0.5766 c or 57.66 % of the speed of light. (b) Approximately A x A = 1 - Z x Z / 18769 = 1 - 79 x 79 / 18769 = 0.667 then A = 0.817. The answer is given by Kang Chuen Tat; PO Box 6263, Dandenong, Victoria VIC 3175, Australia; SMS +61405421706; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://kangchuentat.wordpress.com.
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X is a solid having a white colour at room temperature. It has a density about 2g/cc. Although it has melting point near 325 degree Celsius, its properties start degrading above 260 degree Celsius. The coefficient of friction is very low about 0.1. It has very good dielectric properties especially at higher radio frequencies. It has a very high bulk resistivity. It is chemically inert. It is also resistant to van der Waals force. It is hydrophobic as well as lipophobic. Creep or ‘Cold Flow’ has been observed in X.
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A cantilever beam of length L = 3 m carries a uniformly distributed load (UDL) of W = 20 N / m throughout the length. Calculate the bending moment, BM of the beam near the fixed end. What is the shear force, SF at this point? Let SF = -WL, BM = -LWL/2.
A concentric, counter-current heat exchanger is used to cool lubricating oil. Water is used as the coolant. The mass flow rate of oil into the heat exchanger is 0.1 kg / s = FO. For oil, the inlet temperature TIO = 100 degree Celsius and the outlet temperature TOO = 55 degree Celsius. For water, the inlet temperature TIW = 35 degree Celsius and the outlet temperature TOW = 42 degree Celsius. What is the mass flow rate of water in kg / s, FW needed to maintain these operating conditions? Constant for heat capacity of oil is CO = 2131 J /(kg K) and for water is CW = 4178 J /(kg K). Use the equation (FO)(CO)(TIO – TOO) = (FW)(CW)(TOW – TIW).
ENGINEERING MECHANIC - EXAMPLE 15.2 : A cantilever beam of length L = 3 m carries a uniformly distributed load (UDL) of W = 20 N / m throughout the length. Calculate the bending moment, BM of the beam near the fixed end. What is the shear force, SF at this point? Let SF = -WL, BM = -LWL/2.
REACTION ENGINEERING - EXAMPLE 13.2 : A batch reactor is designed for the system of the irreversible, elementary liquid-phase hydration of butylene oxide that produces butylene glycol. At the reaction temperature T = 323 K, the reaction rate constant is k = 0.00083 L / (mol - min). The initial concentration of butylene oxide is 0.25 mol / L = Ca. The reaction is conducted using water as the solvent, so that water is in large excess. (a) Let the molecular weight of water is 18 g / mol and the mass of 1 kg in 1 L of water, calculate the molar density of water, Cb in the unit of mol / L. (b) Determine the final conversion, X of butylene oxide in the batch reactor after t = 45 min of reaction time. Use the formula X = 1 - 1 / exp [ kt (Cb) ] derived from material balance. (c) Find the equation of t as a function of X.
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